Just a quick post this evening, had a busy evening at my kids school. I am a Trustee and Treasurer at Inly School in Scituate, MA and we had a long board meeting tonight.
I have noticed from re-reading my posts I use the words beer and ale interchangeably. I think nothing of it, I have always believed ale to be a style of beer, where beer is an all encompassing term for all fermented malt based beverages. But I appear to be wrong. I read this great post on the Ale vs Beer by Zythophile on the long battle between ale and beer. Its a long post covering over 5 centuries of history of the hopped and malted beverage but he is a great writer and I have come to enjoy his essays, taking my beer (or is that ale) geekery to new heights.
On a separate note for all beginners I wanted to highlight the completion of my getting started series. I am busy working on another series of posts (and fixing some of the old, I made some mistakes that need work) really digging into the various ingredients starting with yeast and moving onto water, hops and malt.
…and drinking of course. As my friend Liz Knox asked for more quotes in my posts I will give them. Given we are about to bottle and store away the fruits of our labors to prepare them for consumption I thought this was appropriate.
Filled with mingled cream and amber I will drain that glass again. Such hilarious visions clamber Through the chambers of my brain — Quaintest thoughts — queerest fancies Come to life and fade away; Who cares how time advances? I am drinking ale today. – Edgar Allan Poe (American short-story Writer, Editor, Poet and Critic, 1809-1849)
This is the final post in our getting started series. I have to say they have been fun to do and have helped me analyze and question my own techniques and process, improving them along the way. As I noted in the first post of this series, brewing is a journeyman profession.
As with all the other steps in our process I have included photos, again from the Best Bitter I used in both the brewing and fermentation post. Lets get on to business
Equipment and Additional Ingredients
There are some basic equipment requirements when it comes to bottling beer.
1) Bottles – You can either reuse beer bottles from brews acquired at the store or go to a homebrew supplier and buy them there. If you reuse commercial beer bottles make sure they are not screw tops as these require additional equipment not commonly available at homebrew suppliers.
Ensure the bottles are made from dark coloured glass. Over exposure to bright light can cause the beer to get a skunky smell caused by a chemical reaction in the hop oil from an over exposure to ultraviolet light. Whatever your choice, the bottles need to be cleaned thoroughly and dried before bottling can commence using a bottling brush and some HOT water.
Bottles typically come in 3 sizes, either 12 oz, 16 oz, or 22 oz. There are others including growlers and wine bottles. The choice is yours. My only advice is to use a bottle that provides enough ale for a single serving. Remember homebrew ales contain live yeast and a small amount will settle to the bottom of the bottle as part of the priming process. We do not want any of the sediment to get into a poured ale which happens if the bottle is swished around while pouring from glass to glass or placed back on the counter half full, churning the yeast in the process. So either decant into a jug or pour a bottle into a single glass.
2) Bottle Caps and a Capper – Regardless of the bottle size you choose the bottle tops are one standard size (except the wine bottle) and one standard bottle cap though there are a couple of different varieties on offer. There is the standard pry-off cap, it can come in plain metal or decorated with a logo. Some commercial breweries sell surplus caps through homebrew suppliers. The second type of cap is a pry-off cap with a special oxygen-scavenging liner that can help reduce oxidation and staling, especially useful in higher alcohol beers such as Imperial IPA or Barelywine which bottle condition for many months.
Bottle Cappers come in a variety of shapes and sizes from automated to incredibly manual. I use a simple manual twin-lever device with a magnet to hold the cap in place.
3) Priming Sugar – In order to create the CO2 in bottled conditioned beer it is necessary to create a mini fermentation by adding some additional sugar for the remaining yeast to convert to CO2. The amount of sugar is too small to make any real change to the final ABV.
Each ale recipe can have its own priming ingredient and methodology. Typically cane sugar is used, it is easily consumed by the yeast and has no flavour, colour or aroma characteristics once fermented. It needs to be highly soluble and dissolve quickly into the beer. Some recipes call for Dried Malt Extract, or syrup, both which require boiling for 15-20mins and left to cool before adding to the bottling bucket. Unless mentioned, all recipes on this site will use confectioners sugar, typically 3/4 cup to 1 cup depending on the level of carbonation. Do not go over a cup or risk some mini explosions as bottle caps are forced off from too much pressure being created in the bottle. Confectioners sugar is very fine and dissolves easily into the beer.
1) After the ale has been in the secondary fermenter, typically for 5-7 days or as instructed by the recipe, it is ready to be bottled. First assemble the equipment outlined above, if the priming sugar has been boiled, ensure it has been cooled to room temperature before we begin.
2) Next, attach the siphon tube to racking cane. If any hops or other adjuncts were added to the secondary fermentation it may be necessary to attach a small filter to the end of the racking cane to avoid any particles getting into the bottled beer.
3) Remove airlock from the carboy, insert racking cane and siphon off into a clean bottling bucket being very careful to avoid the sediment sitting on the bottom of the carboy. I tilt the carboy forward as the beer drains to ensure we get as much beer out of the bottle leaving all the sediment behind.
Ensure the siphon tubing is coiled around the bottom of the bottling bucket and the beer does not splash as it enters the bucket. Splashing causes the beer to aerate. At this stage of the brewing process oxygen is our enemy. We need a little oxygen to re-invigorate the remaining yeast cells to replicate and consume the small amount of priming sugar, but too much will lead to stale beer. Too much oxygen can also cause the yeast to over produce leaving a lot of sediment and create cloudy beer with a heavy yeast taste, again bad.
Adding 3/4 cup of priming sugar
Stir gently to avoid overly aerating the beer
4) Transfer the now filled bottling bucket to the bottling area, mix the priming sugar or solution to the beer and stir very gently so as not to aerate the beer.
Case of 12 oz beer bottles
Filling the bottle
5) Position empty bottle under the bottling bucket spigot and fill bottle leaving about 1/2 inch open at the top. Don’t worry about the oxygen in the top of the bottle, the CO2 generated by the priming sugar will force it to the top of the bottle and away from the precious ale.
Place cap on now filled bottle
Place capper over bottle like so
Push down on levers, crimping the cap around the edge of the bottle
and you are done
Don't forget to clean and santize your equipment!
6) Put caps on bottle and store in a dark cool place for as long as the recipe states. Two weeks is usually enough to test a bottle to check for successful carbonation, but I would let the ale sit for a couple of weeks before cracking open the case proper. Most ales will hit a peak at around 1 month in the bottle, higher ABV ales can rest for months and sometimes years. Yeah sure, not in my house.
Finally, sit back, crack open a brew, and pour (remember one single pour leaving the small amount of sediment in the bottom of the bottle) and quaff down the fruits of your hard earned labor. Brewing is a fun process, and its fun to discover the flavours, aromas, and colours created by the various combination of hops and grain and the various strains of yeast.
Have fun and please leave comments on the this page about any additional tips and tricks you have found helped you while on your own brewing adventures.
Been taking some pictures during the fermentation process of the Best Bitter we used as the example in the Brewing Day post. I have taken a picture for each day of the primary fermentation stage, typically a 7 day process.
For most homebrewers fermentation is typically done in 2 stages though it can be done in a single stage or more than 3, depending on the recipe.
1) Primary fermentation is the process by which wort finally becomes ale through the conversion of sugars into alcohol and CO2. This conversion is done by the yeast eating the sugars when given the right temperature conditions, dictated by the strain of yeast we use. Stopped fermentation’s tend to occur if fermentation temperatures are too high or too low.
An airlock is used to ensure the CO2 escapes and no microbes get into the wort. If the fermentation becomes a little too active the foam can run out of space and blow out the top of the airlock (yuck its messy, see image below and here). If this circumstance arises the use of a blow-off tube is recommended, preferably before the airlock overflows with foam and crud (the proper term is Krausen). A blow-off tube is typically a hose attached in place of the air lock with the other end of the hose is submerged into a bucket of water or sanitizer. The CO2 continues out of the hose into the bucket along with any of the krausen.
So when is the primary fermentation complete? In my experience it should be left in the primary fermenter for at least 7 days, even if fermentation appears to be complete. The only way to determine whether a fermentation has finished is by taking a gravity reading on consecutive days. If this reading stays constant, fermentation is complete. You can try to guess by seeing if the bubbles have stopped or the krausen has subsided but these methods are inaccurate and can be misleading. If you think your fermentation is done, use your hydrometer to make sure. You will need special equipment, such as a “Beer Thief” to safely extract a sample from the carboy.
2) Secondary fermentation is really a misnomer as no actual fermentation occurs during this phase. It is best described as the “Conditioning and Clearing” phase. For the complete beginner this phase can be skipped and the ale can move on to priming and bottling (upcoming post). If the ale is to be kegged then this secondary phase is essential to avoid clogged lines. Secondary fermentation is simply the transferring or “racking” of the ale into a second, clean, carboy complete with airlock and then stored in a cool room away from sunlight.
The primary purpose of the conditioning phase is to clear and bulk age the ale before it is placed in bottles or kegs. During this phase yeast and solids remaining from the primary fermentation settle out and the ales flavours begin to mellow and meld together. In my experience hoppy, bitter beers tend to be a little too bitter if not left to condition for a while. Flavours also take longer to develop in higher alcohol ales. Over time the more delicate flavours of the specialty grains will come through and its well worth the extra wait. (Remember patience is one of my 3 golden rules)
Duration of the secondary phase varies by recipe. Some recipes call for an aging to be done at lower temperatures, called “Cold Conditioning”. This process is typical for beers aged over long periods, especially beers with higher alcohol content. Most basic recipes though call for an additional 7 days in the same conditions as the primary fermentation phase. It is also typical during this phase to add additional flavours and adjuncts such as spices, fruit extracts and oak chips as well as the process called dry-hopping.
Dry-hopping has become very popular in American Ales, specifically the American IPA. As much of the aroma qualities of the hops are either boiled off during the brew or lost in the primary fermenter it has become popular to add a slug of hops into the secondary. This process captures the aroma of the hop without imparting any of the bitterness. Some professional brewers have taken this art to the extreme, creating equipment for straining an ale through hops prior to serving (here). Simply add the prescribed amount of hops to the secondary, secure airlock, and leave in cool place.
Some brews require an additional conditioning phase but this is rare. The 90 min IPA I brew is a 3 stage process with the 3rd phase used as a long cold conditioning process. The beer is racked a 3rd time to remove the ale from the hops used for dry-hopping in the second stage and off the yeast and proteins that settled.
With the end of secondary fermentation we are now 1/2 way through the brewing process for most typical ales. In our next “Getting Started” post we will focus on priming and bottling before getting down to my favorite section of all, the drinking.
Before we begin with brewing day (and I am actually writing this while I am brewing a batch of British Best Bitter), I wanted to share 3 basic rules I have come to live by with homebrew.
1) CLEANLINESS - It is important to use clean equipment throughout the brewing process from the boil to the fermentation to the bottling or kegging. I find some books and suppliers go a little over the top asking you to essentially nuke everything with strong chemicals and detergents. In my experience dish soap and REALLY hot water work just fine. Clean all the equipment and keep in a cool dry place.
2) TEMPERATURE - Always follow the recipe with regards to temperature. Too hot can cause yeast not to ferment and other bacterias to grow (bad), too cold and the yeast sleeps (very bad). Too hot and the sugars will not get extracted from the malt or other unwanted enzymes will get extracted also. You will need a room where the temperature is relatively constant around 65-70F in order to ferment and condition ale. Some ales and lagers require a cold fermentation or conditioning phase so a fridge with a thermostat may also be required for these recipes.
3) PATIENCE - Don’t rush the process, fermentation takes time, conditioning takes time. Follow the recommended durations specified in a recipe until a bottle is opened. The beer will taste amazing if you do. I have seen some brewers suck down cloudy unsettled beer, its disturbing (you know who you are).
Brewing Day Equipment
Additional Requirements – a stove capable of holding a 5 gallon kettle, a large measuring jug, a large clean wooden or plastic spoon, a patient loving wife, and kids that don’t mind the wonderful aromas of boiling beer wort.
WARNING - not everyone will share the passion for the wonderful aromas boiling malt and hops will bring to your household. If you do not have a stove or have been banished to the garden shed you will also require an outdoor stove and full bottle of propane.
Time - You will need at least 2 hours to complete the following steps. Pictures included in this post were taken today (11/25) while I brewed my Best Bitter on my 3G iPhone.
Step 1: Preparing the yeast – If you are using dried yeast it is a good idea to give the yeast a little head-start by getting it frisky and reproducing. Simply dissolve a small amount of sugar or DME in some warm tap water (approx 70F) and add the dried yeast. Do this before you start the brew so the yeast has at least 1 1/2 hours to work its magic. If you are using liquid yeast from White Labs or Wyeast just follow the instructions on the label.
Step 2: Steeping the specialty grains – As we discussed in the prior post specialty malt provides the colour and flavour (with some sugars) for our ale. I find it helpful to order the grains pre-crushed as I do not have a milling machine. If you have purchased uncrushed grain and do not have a milling machine, transfer grains into a ziploc and crush with a rolling pin until all the grains have opened.
Now in a separate pot (not the brew kettle and make sure you have a lid) heat up 1 1/2 gallons of water to 165 F and remove from the heat. Transfer the crushed specialty grains into a steeping bag (if you have one) tie a knot in the end, and place into the pot of water. If you do not have a bag just pour the grains directly into the 165F water. Cover the pot and steep for 20mins. Remember temperature is important. Too hot or too cold could lead to bad flavours and/or cloudy beer.
Once the 20mins are up remove the grains and dispose of them by either removing the bag or straining through a sieve or colander. Transfer the infused liquid into your boiling kettle along with an additional 1 1/2 gallons of water, cover the kettle, and turn the kettle heat to high.
NOTE - If you used the straining method to steep the specialty grains try leaving the grains in the strainer and filtering the 1 1/2 gallons of additional water through the grains to extract more of the colour a flavour still present in the grains. If you do this you will need to heat the water to 165 F before you begin to strain.
Place Specialty Grains in the Steeping Sock
Heat a pot 1 1/2 gallons of water
Heat steeping water to 165 F before adding grains
Remove from heat add grains and cover for 20 mins
Remove grains and pour liquid into the brewing kettle
Cover kettle and turn heat to high
Step 3: Adding the base malt and bittering hopes – Once the liquid (called wort) has reached boiling point remove from the heat (be careful the wort does not boil over it makes a mess and tries the patience of patient wife leading to banishment to garden) and wait for the foam (known as the hot break) to subside. Now add in your malt extract, stirring the wort well to dissolve the malt. Replace the kettle back on the heat and bring back to a boil. The base malt is responsible for the bulk of the sugar content in your brew. The more malt the more alcohol.
Once the wort reaches boil add the bittering hops. These hops need the full boil time to extract their alpha acids giving the beer its bitter taste. The higher the alpha, and/or the longer they cook, and/or the larger the quantity will all cause a more bitter beer. Beer bitterness is measured in IBU’s (International Bitterness Units), the higher the value the more bitter the beer. Now set the timer to 60 mins keeping the wort on a high simmer.
Malt Extract and Bittering Hops
Remove boiling wort from heat and add malt extract
Put back on heat, bring to boil then add hops
Set timer for 60mins, we are off
Step 4: Brew additions – It is not uncommon for recipes to require additional ingredients to be added during the boil. These are typically additional malt, hops or sugars. Hops added in the latter half of a brew are called flavour hops. The beta acids impart aroma and some flavour as some of the alpha acids are also extracted. The longer the hops have to boil the more bitter flavor is extracted. Flavour hop additions tend to be added between 30-45 mins into a boil. Hops added at the end of a boil only extract the beta acids giving a beer a strong fruity aroma. These hops are called aroma hops. Aroma hops are typically added with under 5 minutes to go or once the 60 min boil has completed.
Other additions include Irish Moss. Irish moss is a natural way to help clarify the beer during fermentation. Irish moss is typically added 30 mins into the boil.
Adding 1 tsp Irish Moss at the 30min mark
Adding Flavour Hops at 45mins
Step 5: Cooling and aerating the wort – Once the 60 mins are up and all the ingredients have been added it is essential to cool the wort down as quickly as possible to ensure no bad bacterias get a chance to grow. I have access to a large farm sink in which I place the brew kettle and fill with ice cold water from the tap cooling the sides of the kettle. I find 2 sinkfuls gets the temperature down to ~110F.
Next I add ice cold water to the wort to bring the kettle to a total of 5 gallons of liquid. This brings the temperate down between 75-80F, perfect for transferring to the carboy for fermentation. During this step stir the wort well, this will efficiently aerate the liquid and create an oxygen rich environment enabling the yeast to grow healthy cells.
For those without a sink or who work with larger brew volumes, homebrew equipment suppliers provide wort chillers. These are typically a coil of copper tubing that fits inside a kettle with hose attachments at each end to affix a hose. Cold water is continuously cycled through the coil cooling the wort very quickly.
Cooling wort in a sink full for ice cold water whilst stirring to mix in the oxygen
Getting the temperature down to 75F by topping up kettle to 5 gal with cold water
Step 6: Pitching the yeast (almost there) – With the wort sufficient cooled its time to measure the Specific Gravity of the wort using a hydrometer. The Specific Gravity measures the density of sugar in the wort and the density of the water. The Original Gravity (OG) reading gives us the amount of sugar present in the wort prior to the fermentation stage. At the end of the fermentation process the Final Gravity (FG) reading is taken to calculate how much sugar remains. Most hydrometers also provide an Alcohol By Volume (ABV) scale. So by subtracting the FG reading from the OG gives us the final ABV of your brew. E.g if the OG reading = 1050 we have an initial ABV of 6.5%. Then at the end of fermentation we get a FG =1012 and a final ABV of 1.5%. Simply subtract 1.5% from 6.5% to get a pint of ale with an ABV of 5%, a fine session brew.
To measure the OG simply transfer a sample of the wort into a test jar (I use a clean turkey baster) and insert the hydrometer. Mark the value in a notebook and pour back the wort into the kettle. Once you have completed this task pour the yeast into the kettle and give a little stir.
Time to measure the Specific Gravity
The OG reading is 1042, almost perfect for a Best Bitter
Now lets pitch the yeast (some Wyeast London ESB in this case)
Step 7: Transferring the wort into the Carboy – You will need a pair of strong arms and funnel. Too keep the wife happy I place a towel on the floor under the clean carboy (not the hand towel, it will get you in lots of trouble, an old rag should do the job). Place a wide funnel in the top of the carboy and carefully poor the contents of the kettle into the funnel. I sometimes ask either my 8 or 6 year old to hold the funnel steady typically with the sounds of “this beer is stinky daddy, stinky”.
Once transferred fill an airlock to the line with water, put the airlock in a bung, and secure the bung into the top of the carboy. Now move the carboy to a room with a constant temperature between 65-75F so the yeast can make babies and eat all the sugary goodness in the malt. This will produce alcohol and creating a wonderful marriage of flavours. It also creates CO2 which you can see popping out of the airlock during the fermentation. I use the basement.
Carboy ready on towel with funnel
5 gal of wort transferred (no spillage)
Attached the airlock and bung...
...and off to the 65-70F basement it goes for 5-7 days
Step 8: Cleanup – It keeps the wife happy and all your equipment clean and bacteria free. Happy wife is by far the most important of the two.
Have fun, next post we will walk through an actual recipe and we can check back in with our fermenting ale to check on progress.
I have just received delivery from Northern Brewer of all the ingredients I will need to start my next couple of brews. (Look for an “On Tap” update in the coming days) Since I bought a second carboy I like to use one for a regular session brew and the other for some more experimental ales that often require longer conditioning times, like the 90 minute IPA I have cold conditioning right now.
Well the delivery reminded me I need to post the Part 2 (out of 3) in my “Getting Started” series. Now we have the equipment we need to create most styles of ale its time to review the basic ingredients. This post is meant to be an introduction and we will be getting into the details and varieties as our journey progresses.
English Marris Otter
The major ingredient in homebrew is malt. Malt is a significant factor in colour (it is British Brewer after all), taste, and alcohol level in ale. Simply put malt is the product of soaking grains in water until they begin to germinate. The grains are then heated to halt the germination process. This 2-stage “malting” process causes the grains to produce essential enzymes required to modify the grains starch into sugars and enable the yeast to do its job. Different varieties of grain are used each with a specific flavour or colour characteristic. Certain varieties are toasted or smoked to produce darker, nuttier or smoked flavour characteristics. We will get into the various types of grain some other time, especially when we review recipes and the types of malt they are based on. Basically there are two categories – the Base Malt, and Specialty Malt. Base malts make up the bulk of the a batch and are typically based from one of 2 types of barley, either 2-Row or 6-Row. These grains are very efficient at breaking down the starches into sugar. Specialty malt provides a small amount of sugar but its main function is to provide, colour, flavour and body to the finished ale.
Ale made by the professionals is based on an “all-grain” process using hundreds of pounds of malt in the process. Modern homebrew technology has evolved over the years to enable us mere mortals to create all-grain based brews but the process is long, complex and requires a relatively large quantity of grain. As yet I have not attempted an all-grain process (time, money, space reasons) and instead use a combination of malt extract and a smaller amount of specialty grains.
Malt extract comes in two varieties, Dry Malt Extract (DME), and Liquid Malt Extract (LME). Both replace the need for a large quantity of base malt grains. Most suppliers provide malt extract manufactured with some flavor and color characteristics required to produce most of the popular ale styles today. Most of the recipes we will be working with will use a combination of specialty grains and malt extract.
Another significant ingredient are Hops which contribute significantly to the taste and aroma of an ale. Hop resin is made up of alpha and beta acids. Alpha acids are responsible for the bitter taste in the ale and tend to be put in at the beginning of the brew process. The higher the alpha the more bitter. Beta acids have little effect to the flavor of an ale instead providing the aroma characteristics and are added to the brew in the middle and end of the brew process. Hops are supplied dried or as pellets. I prefer pellets as they have a longer shelf life. Popular English hop varieties include Kent Goldings and Fuggles.
Finally the magic ingredient, the bacteria that converts the sugar from the malt into alcohol during the fermentation process, the brewers yeast. Yeast is also a significant contributor to the taste of an ale. There are two main types of brewers yeast, top-fermenting and bottom-fermenting. Top-fermenting yeast causes a foam to form on the top of the brew (wort) during the fermentation process, prefer higher temperatures (61 – 75 F), produce a fruitier flavour, and a higher alcohol content. These yeasts are typically used in ales. Bottom-fermenting yeast works at lower temperatures, ferments more sugars, creating a dry crispier taste and is commonly used in lagers. Yeast requires oxygenated wort in order to produce healthy yeast cells. Today yeast is sold to homebrewers in either a dried or liquid form with hundreds of different strains replicating many of the strains used all over the world by professional breweries.
There are other ingredients used in a brew, from sugar, irish moss, to speciality additions such as oak chips, spices and fruit. There are infinite possibilities of colour, taste, aroma, and strength. This is what makes homebrewing so much fun and if you can boil water on a stove and follow a simple recipe you can make great tasting ale. Next time we will introduce a basic brewing process following a simple recipe to create a British staple – Best Bitter.
With my interest piqued and support from my adorable wife I decided to give home brewing a crack. This was over 15 months ago now and I have learned a lot during this time. I would characterize myself as a beginner still, working through all the basic styles, trying out various techniques such as dry hopping, brew additions, different boil times, and playing around with the various ingredients. Brewing is a journeyman profession you never stop learning.
Before you can get started with home brewing some basic equipment is required:
The brew kettle: Required to boil your ingredients. They come in various sizes, I have found the 5 gallon works for me. Useful for boiling lobster also.
A Carboy. They come in all shapes and sizes and are made in both glass and food grade plastic. I prefer the glass, they last forever assuming you don’t drop them of course. A carboy is used to ferment your brew. You will also need a good supply of bungs and airlocks to allow the CO2 to escape and the outside air from getting in.
Brewers Bucket (with spigot)
A Brewers Bucket. This is one of the most useful pieces of equipment you can own. I use the bucket primarily for bottling but they can be used as a cheaper alternative to a carboy (above). I highly recommend getting a bucket with a spigot pre-installed. No other bottling equipment is required if you do. All you have to do is position the bottle under the spigot, turn on the tap to fill, turn off when you are done.
Beer Bottles. You need something to put the ale in to condition and serve. We will get to kegging in a much later post as it does require some additional expertise. Bottling beer is clean, efficient and cheap. You can either buy them online or reuse the bottles from your local beer store. Either way you will need a good supply of caps and a bottle capper.
The above list is enough to get started. I would also recommend purchasing a bottle and carboy cleaning brush, some good quality siphon tubing, a large funnel, and a hydrometer (to figure the alcohol content of your brew). Most good brewing suppliers provide a good starter kits to make getting up and running as smooth as possible. I bought mine from OakBarrel and NorthernBrewer has as good range of kits also. Most starter kits do not include a kettle so don’t forget to order one. You should be able to get everything you need to get started for ~$150 or less.
So get online and order away. Next time we will review a brewers basic ingredients before launching into our first recipe.